Where large groups of people are displaced either by conflict or by natural disaster and they are likely to stay in a location for periods in excess of a few weeks, there will be a need to establish and probably subsequently upgrade a centralised water treatment system.
Guidelines for Bulk Water Treatment in Emergencies
Oxfam's Guidelines for Bulk Water Treatment in Emergencies has been produced by the Oxfam Public Health Engineering Team to help engineers to quickly set up a reliable water treatment system where mass displacement of people has occurred, for example in refugee camps and relief centres.
The previous edition of these guidelines was written in 2001, and this third edition has been updated in 2020 to reflect changes since the previous edition was written:
- Historically Oxfam developed equipment packages, available for order through the Supply Centre for rapid set up of water treatment systems. With more developed global markets and increasingly restrictive customs regulations, locally sourced solutions are becoming more important.
- There have been technological advancements and development of new equipment since 2001, most notably around membrane filtration.
The monitoring forms in Appendix 3 are also available as a word document for ease of use and modification:
The Oxfam Instruction Manual for Water Filtration Equipment covers roughing and slow sand filtration. It was written in 2000 to accompany Oxfam water treatment kits, and is now very dated. Not all of the Oxfam kits detailed in the manual are still produced. However, we are continuing to make it available as much of the information contained in it is still useful and relevant.
Similarly, the Oxfam Technical Manual on Coagulation and Disinfection Equipment is outdated and refers to various kits that are no longer available. The manual also provides information about the upflow clarifier - this is no longer recommended by Oxfam. We are also continuing to make it available as much of the other information is still useful.