Water Distribution

The distribution of water to affected communities typically involves tanks, pipes and water distribution points.


The Oxfam Water Distribution Manual is practical advice focused on the type of system commonly used in common emergency situations.

Oxfam Water Distribution Manual

In some places that we work, pre-paid water dispensers may be an appropriate solution for improved financial sustainability and equality of access to water. Oxfam have written a technical brief to provide an introduction to this relatively new but very topical technology.

Pre-paid Communal Water Dispensers

Design of Distribution Systems

There are a series of books by Sanitago Anaralich which are a good starting point for understanding the design of small water systems. You can read one of them for free here: Gravity Flow Water Supply by Sanitago Arnalich.

The following book by Thomas D Jordan on the subject of gravity-flow water systems in Nepal has been a useful reference text for many years. It is not free to access, however. A Handbook of Gravity-Flow Water Systems

Oxfam Water Tanks

Oxfam Supply Centre have produced a one hour video series detailing how to properly install an Oxfam water tank. A variety of water storage solutions are available on the Oxfam Supply Centre.

View the Oxfam Steel Tank Video Series

Minimum Requirements

Design of Water Collection Points

Gravity-Fed Systems